|Alice in Chains|
|Origin||Seattle, Washington, United States|
|Genre(s)||Heavy metal, Alternative metal, grunge|
|Label(s)||Columbia Records, Virgin Records|
|Associated Acts||Alice N' Chains, Class of '99, Comes with the Fall, Mad Season, Black Label Society, Spys4Darwin|
Alice in Chains is an American metal/rock band formed in Seattle, Washington, in 1987 by guitarist and songwriter Jerry Cantrell and original lead vocalist Layne Staley. The initial lineup was rounded out by drummer Sean Kinney, and bassist Mike Starr (who was replaced in 1993 by Mike Inez).
Although widely associated with grunge music, the band's sound incorporates heavy metal and acoustic elements. Since its formation, Alice in Chains has released five studio albums, three EPs, two live albums, four compilations, and two DVDs. The band is known for its distinct vocal style which often included the harmonized vocals of Staley and Cantrell.
Alice in Chains rose to international fame as part of the grunge movement of the early 1990s, along with other Seattle bands such as Nirvana, Pearl Jam, and Soundgarden. The band was one of the most successful music acts of the 1990s, selling over 25 million albums worldwide, and over 14 million in the US alone. In 1992, the band released their album Dirt, which was critically acclaimed and has been certified quadruple platinum. The band has had two consecutive No. 1 Billboard 200 releases; Jar of Flies and Alice in Chains. They have also had 16 top ten songs on theMainstream Rock Tracks chart and nine Grammy Award nominations.
Although never officially disbanding, Alice in Chains was plagued by extended inactivity from 1996 onwards due to Staley's substance abuse, which resulted in his death in 2002. The band reunited in 2005 with new lead vocalist William DuVall, and released their fourth studio album, Black Gives Way to Blue, in 2009. The album was a success, being certified gold by the RIAA in 2010. Alice in Chains released their fifth studio album, The Devil Put Dinosaurs Here, on May 28, 2013. Alice in Chains is currently working on their sixth studio album, tentatively set for release in early 2018.
Formation and early years (1984–1989)Edit
Before the formation of Alice in Chains, then-drummer Layne Staley landed his first gig as a vocalist when he auditioned to sing for a local glam metal band known as Sleze after receiving some encouragement from his stepbrother Ken Elmer. Other members of this group at that time were guitarists Johnny Bacolas and Zoli Semanate, drummer James Bergstrom, and bassist Byron Hansen. This band went through several lineup changes culminating with Nick Pollock as their sole guitarist and Bacolas switching to bass before discussions arose about changing their name to Alice in Chains. This was prompted by a conversation that Bacolas had with a singer from another band about backstage passes. Due to concerns over the reference to female bondage], the group ultimately chose to spell it differently as Alice N' Chains to allay any parental concerns, though Staley's mother Nancy McCallum has said she was still not happy with this name at first.
Staley met guitarist Jerry Cantrell at a party in Seattle around August 1987. A few months before that, Cantrell had watched a concert of Staley's then-band, Alice N' Chains, in his hometown at the Tacoma Little Theatre and was impressed by his voice. Cantrell was homeless after being kicked out of his family's house, so Staley invited Cantrell to live with him at the rehearsal studio Music Bank, and the two struggling musicians became roommates. Alice N' Chains soon disbanded, and Staley joined a funk band. Cantrell's band, Diamond Lie, broke up and he wanted to form a new band, so Staley gave him the phone number of Melinda Starr, the girlfriend of drummer Sean Kinney, so that Cantrell could talk to him. Cantrell called the number and set up a meeting with Kinney. Kinney and his girlfriend went to the Music Bank and listened to Cantrell's demos, who mentioned that they needed a bass player to jam with them, and he had someone in mind: Mike Starr, with whom Cantrell had played in a band in Burien called Gypsy Rose. Kinney then mentioned that his girlfriend was actually Mike Starr's sister, and that he had been playing in bands together with Starr since they were kids. Kinney called Starr and a few days later he started jamming with him and Cantrell at the Music Bank, but they didn't have a singer. Staley's funk band also required a guitarist at the time, and Staley asked Cantrell to join as a sideman. Cantrell agreed on condition that Staley join his band, because Cantrell, Starr and Kinney wanted Staley to be their lead singer, so they started auditioning terrible lead singers in front of Staley to send a hint. The last straw for Staley was when they auditioned a male stripper – he decided to join the band after that. Eventually, the funk project broke up, and in 1987 Staley joined Cantrell's band on a full-time basis.
The band played a couple of gigs in clubs around the Pacific Northwest, calling themselves different monikers, including Diamond Lie, the name of Cantrell's previous band, and "Fuck", before eventually adopting the name that Staley's previous band had initially flirted with, Alice in Chains.
Facelift and Sap (1990–1992)Edit
In 1990, Columbia Records released Alice in Chains' first official recording, a promotional EP titled We Die Young. The EP's lead single, "We Die Young", became a hit on metal radio. After its success, the label rushed Alice in Chains' debut album into production with producer Dave Jerden.
The resulting album, Facelift, was released on August 21, 1990, peaking at number 42 in the summer of 1991 on the Billboard 200 chart. Facelift was not an instant success, selling under 40,000 copies in the first six months of release, until MTV added "Man in the Box" to regular daytime rotation. The single hit number 18 on the Mainstream rock charts, with the album's follow up single, "Sea of Sorrow", reaching number 27, and in six weeks Facelift sold 400,000 copies in the US. The album was a critical success, with Steve Huey of AllMusic citing Facelift as "one of the most important records in establishing an audience for grunge and alternative rock among hard rock and heavy metal listeners."
Facelift was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) by the end of 1990, while the band continued to hone its audience, opening for such artists as Iggy Pop, Van Halen, Poison, and Extreme. In early 1991, Alice in Chains landed the opening slot for the Clash of the Titans tour with Anthrax, Megadeth, and Slayer, exposing the band to a wide metal audience but receiving mainly poor reception. Alice in Chains was nominated for a Best Hard Rock Performance Grammy Award in 1992 for "Man in the Box" but lost to Van Halen for their 1991 album For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge.
Following the tour, Alice in Chains entered the studio to record demos for its next album, but ended up recording five acoustic songs instead. While in the studio, drummer Sean Kinney had a dream about "making an EP called Sap". The band decided "not to mess with fate", and on March 21, 1992, Alice in Chains released their second EP, Sap, which was certified gold within two weeks. The EP features guest vocals by Ann Wilson from the band Heart, who joined Staley and Cantrell for the choruses of "Brother", "Am I Inside", and "Love Song". The EP also features Mark Arm of Mudhoney and Chris Cornell of Soundgarden, who appeared together on the song "Right Turn", credited to "Alice Mudgarden" in the liner notes.
In 1992, Alice in Chains appeared in the Cameron Crowe film Singles, performing as a "bar band". The band also contributed the song "Would?" to the film's soundtrack, whose video received an award for Best Video from a Film at the 1993 MTV Video Music Awards.
On September 29, 1992, Alice in Chains released its second album, Dirt. The album peaked at number six on the Billboard 200 and since its release has been certified quadruple platinum by the RIAA, making Dirt the band's highest selling album to date. The album was a critical success, with Steve Huey of Allmusic praising the album as a "major artistic statement, and the closest they ever came to recording a flat-out masterpiece". Chris Gill of Guitar World called Dirt "huge and foreboding, yet eerie and intimate", and "sublimely dark and brutally honest". Dirt spawned five top 30 singles, "Would?", "Rooster", "Them Bones", "Angry Chair", and "Down in a Hole", and remained on the charts for nearly two years. Alice in Chains was added as openers to Ozzy Osbourne's No More Tours tour. Days before the tour began, Layne Staley broke his foot in an ATV accident, forcing him to use crutches on stage.
Starr left the band shortly after the Hollywood Rock concert in Rio de Janeiro in January 1993, stating that he wanted to spend more time with his family. Staley told Rolling Stone in 1994 about Starr leaving the band, "It was just a difference in priorities. We wanted to continue intense touring and press. Mike was ready to go home." Years later, Starr claimed that he was fired due to his drug addiction. Starr was replaced by former Ozzy Osbourne bassist Mike Inez.
In 1993, the band recorded two songs with Inez, "What the Hell Have I" and "A Little Bitter", for the Last Action Hero soundtrack. During the summer of 1993, Alice in Chains toured with the alternative music festival Lollapalooza, their last major tour with Staley.
Jar of Flies (1993–1994)Edit
Following Alice in Chains' extensive 1993 world tour, Staley said the band "just wanted to go into the studio for a few days with our acoustic guitars and see what happened". "We never really planned on the music we made at that time to be released. But the record label heard it and they really liked it. For us, it was just the experience of four guys getting together in the studio and making some music."
Columbia Records released Alice in Chains' second acoustic-based EP, Jar of Flies, on January 25, 1994. Written and recorded in one week, Jar of Flies debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, becoming the first ever EP—and first Alice in Chains release—to top the charts.
Paul Evans of Rolling Stone called the EP "darkly gorgeous", and Steve Huey stated "Jar of Flies is a low-key stunner, achingly gorgeous and harrowingly sorrowful all at once". Jar of Flies features Alice in Chains' first number-one single on the Mainstream Rock charts, "No Excuses". The second single, "I Stay Away", reached number ten on the Mainstream rock charts, while the final single "Don't Follow", reached number 25. Jar of Flies has been certified triple platinum by the RIAA, with over 2 million copies sold in the United Sates during its first year.
After the release of Jar of Flies, Staley entered rehab for heroin addiction. The band was scheduled to tour during the summer of 1994 with Metallica, Suicidal Tendencies, Danzig, and Fight, as well as a slot during Woodstock '94, but while in rehearsal for the tour, Staley began using heroin again. Staley's condition prompted the other band members to cancel all scheduled dates one day before the start of the tour, putting the band on hiatus.
Alice in Chains (1995–1996)Edit
In April 1995, Alice in Chains entered Bad Animals Studio in Seattle with producer Toby Wright, who had previously worked with Corrosion of Conformity and Slayer. While in the studio, an inferior version of the song "Grind" was leaked to radio, and received major airplay. On October 6, 1995, the band released the studio version of the song to radio via satellite uplink. On November 7, 1995, Columbia Records released the eponymous album, Alice in Chains, which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and has since been certified double platinum. Of the album's four singles, "Grind", "Again", "Over Now", and "Heaven Beside You", three feature Cantrell on lead vocals. Jon Wiederhorn of Rolling Stone called the album "liberating and enlightening, the songs achieve a startling, staggering and palpable impact."
The song "Got Me Wrong" unexpectedly charted three years after its release on the Sap EP. The song was re-released as a single on the soundtrack for the independent film Clerks in 1995, reaching number seven on the Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. The band opted not to tour in support of Alice in Chains, adding to the rumors of drug abuse.
Alice in Chains resurfaced on April 10, 1996, to perform their first concert in two and a half years for MTV Unplugged, a program featuring all-acoustic set lists. The performance featured some of the band's highest charting singles, including "Down in a Hole", "Heaven Beside You", "No Excuses" and "Would?", and introduced a new song, "Killer Is Me", with Cantrell on lead vocals. The show marked Alice in Chains' only appearance as a five-piece band, adding second guitarist Scott Olson. A live album of the performance was released in July 1996, debuting at number three on the Billboard 200, and was accompanied by a home video release, both of which received platinum certification by the RIAA. Alice in Chains performed four shows supporting the reunited original Kiss lineup on their 1996/97 Alive/Worldwide Tour, including the final live appearance of Layne Staley on July 3, 1996, in Kansas City, Missouri. Shortly after the show, Staley was found unresponsive after he overdosed on heroin and was taken to the hospital. Although he recovered, the band was forced to go on hiatus.
Hiatus and death of Layne Staley (1996–2002)Edit
Although Alice in Chains never officially disbanded, Staley became a recluse, rarely leaving his Seattle condominium following the death of his ex-fiancée Demri Parrott due to infective endocarditis. After a decade of battling drug addiction, Layne Staley was found dead in his condominium in Seattle on April 19, 2002. The autopsy and toxicology report on Staley's body revealed that he died from a mixture of heroin and cocaine, known as "speedball". The autopsy concluded that Staley died on April 5, two weeks before his body was found.
Reunion shows (2005–2008)Edit
In February 2005, Jerry Cantrell, Mike Inez, and Sean Kinney reunited to perform a benefit concert in Seattle for victims of the tsunami disaster that struck South Asia in 2004. The band featured Damageplan vocalist Pat Lachman, as well as other special guests including Maynard James Keenan of Tool and Ann Wilson of Heart. On March 10, 2006, the surviving members performed at VH1's Decades Rock Live concert, honoring fellow Seattle musicians Ann and Nancy Wilson of Heart. They played "Would?" with vocalist Phil Anselmo of Pantera and Down and bass player Duff McKagan of Guns N' Roses and Velvet Revolver, then they played "Rooster" with Comes with the Fall vocalist William DuVall and Ann Wilson. The band followed the concert with a short United States club tour, several festival dates in Europe, and a brief tour in Japan. To coincide with the band's reunion, Sony Music released the long-delayed third Alice in Chains compilation, The Essential Alice in Chains, a double album that includes 28 songs. In 2006, DuVall officially became the fourth member of Alice in Chains, serving as co-lead vocalist, rhythm guitarist, and occasional lead guitarist.
Black Gives Way to Blue and death of Mike Starr (2008–2011)Edit
Blabbermouth.net reported in September 2008 that Alice in Chains would enter the studio that October to begin recording a new album for a summer 2009 release. In October 2008, Alice in Chains began recording its fourth studio album at the Foo Fighters' Studio 606 in Los Angeles with producer Nick Raskulinecz. The band didn't have a record label at the time and the album was funded by Jerry Cantrell and Sean Kinney. At the Revolver Golden God Awards, Jerry Cantrell said that the group had finished recording in March 2009 and were mixing the album for a September release. In April 2009, it was reported that the new Alice in Chains album would be released by Virgin/EMI, making it the band's first label change in its 20-plus year career. On June 11, 2009, Blabbermouth.net reported that the new album would be titled Black Gives Way to Blue and was officially set to be released on September 29, 2009. On June 30, 2009, the song "A Looking in View" was released as the first single from the album. It was made available for a limited time as a free download through the official Alice in Chains website in early July. The music video for the song debuted via the official website on July 7, 2009. The second single, "Check My Brain", was released to radio stations on August 14, 2009 and was made available for purchase on August 17, 2009. In addition, it was announced that Elton John appears on the album's title track.
To coincide with the band's European tour, Alice in Chains released its next single, "Your Decision", on November 16 in the UK and on December 1 in the US. The fourth single from the album was "Lesson Learned" and was released to rock radio in mid-June.
The album debuted at No. 5 on the Billboard 200. On May 18, 2010, Black Gives Way to Blue was certified gold by the RIAA for selling over 500,000 copies in the U.S. The singles "Check My Brain" and "Your Decision" reached No. 1 on Billboard's Mainstream Rock Tracks, while "Lesson Learned" reached No. 4. "Check My Brain" was also the band's first #1 song on the Alternative Songs chart, and on the Hot Rock Songs chart, it also reached No. 92 on Billboard's Hot 100, becoming the band's first single to appear on the chart.
On March 8, 2011, former Alice in Chains bassist Mike Starr was found dead at his home in Salt Lake City. Police told Reuters they were called to Starr's home at 1:42 pm and found his body; Starr was 44. Reports later surfaced that Starr's roommate had seen him mixing methadone and anxiety medication hours before he was found dead. Later reports indicated Starr's death may have been linked to two different types of antidepressants prescribed to him by his doctor. A public memorial was held for Starr at the Seattle Center's International Fountain on March 20, 2011. A private memorial was also held, which Jerry Cantrell and Sean Kinney attended according to Mike Inez.
The Devil Put Dinosaurs Here and next album (2011–present)Edit
On March 21, 2011, Alice in Chains announced that they were working on a fifth studio album. In December 2012, Cantrell confirmed that the new album had been completed, and the first single, "Hollow", debuted online on December 18, available for digital download in January 2013, along with an official music video. On February 13, 2013, Alice in Chains posted on Facebook that their new album title would be an anagram of the letters H V L E N T P S U S D A H I E E O E D T I U R R. The next day they announced that the album would be called The Devil Put Dinosaurs Here, which was released on May 28, 2013, debuting at number two on the Billboard 200. The band released videos for the songs "Stone," "Voices," and the title track later in 2013. "Hollow" and "Stone" reached No. 1 on Billboard's Mainstream Rock Tracks, while "Voices" reached No. 3, and each one of the three songs stayed on the chart for 20 weeks.
In January 2017, Mike Inez stated in an interview that the band had begun work on a new album. In June 2017, it was reported that the band would return to Studio X in Seattle to record a new album later that month, for a tentative early 2018 release. The sessions will be helmed by Nick Raskulinecz, who produced the band's last two albums. Studio X was the studio where Alice in Chains recorded its 1995 self-titled album. According to Inez, the band is not currently signed to a label, having completed its previous two-record contract with the Universal Music Group. "This [upcoming album], we're not sure where it's gonna land... I mean, we financed ['Black Gives Way To Blue'] on our own too, so we're not too worried about that stuff. We've just gotta get it out to ... a significant label [with worldwide distribution]."
Although Alice in Chains has been labeled grunge by the mainstream media, Jerry Cantrell identifies the band as primarily heavy metal. He told Guitar World in 1996, "We're a lot of different things ... I don't quite know what the mixture is, but there's definitely metal, blues, rock and roll, maybe a touch of punk. The metal part will never leave, and I never want it to". The Edmonton Journal has stated, "Living and playing in Seattle might have got them the grunge tag, but they've always pretty much been a classic metal band to the core."
Over the course of their career, the band's sound has also been described as alternative metal,  sludge metal, doom metal, drone rock, hard rock, and alternative rock. Regarding the band's constant categorization by the media, Cantrell stated "When we first came out we were metal. Then we started being called alternative metal. Then grunge came out and then we were hard rock. And now, since we've started doing this again I've seen us listed as: hard rock, alternative, alternative metal and just straight metal. I walked into an HMV the other day to check out the placement and see what's on and they've got us relegated back into the metal section. Right back where we started!". Drummer Sean Kinney rejects the grunge label, stating in a 2013 interview "I mean, before we first came out there was no grunge, they hadn’t invented that word. Before they invented the word grunge we were alternative rock and alternative metal and metal and rock, and we didn’t give a shit whatever, we were a rock and roll band!". According to Mike Inez, they were always the metal stepchildren of the Seattle scene.
Jerry Cantrell's guitar style combines "pummeling riffs and expansive guitar textures" to create "slow, brooding minor-key grinds". He is also recognized for his natural ability to blend acoustic and electric guitars. While down-tuned, distorted guitars mixed with Staley's distinctive "snarl-to-a-scream" vocals appealed to heavy metal fans, the band also had "a sense of melody that was undeniable", which introduced Alice in Chains to a much wider audience outside of the heavy metal underground.
According to Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic, Alice in Chains' sound has a "Black Sabbath-style riffing and an unconventional vocal style". The band has been described by Erlewine as "hard enough for metal fans, yet their dark subject matter and punky attack placed them among the front ranks of the Seattle-based grunge bands". Three of the band's releases feature acoustic music, and while the band initially kept these releases separate, Alice in Chains' self-titled album combined the styles to form "a bleak, nihilistic sound that balanced grinding hard rock with subtly textured acoustic numbers".
Alice in Chains is also noted for the unique vocal harmonies of Staley (or DuVall) and Cantrell, which included overlapping passages, dual lead vocals, and trademark harmonies typically separated by a major third. Cantrell said it was Staley who gave him the self-assurance to sing his own songs. Alyssa Burrows said the band's distinctive sound "came from Staley's vocal style and his lyrics dealing with personal struggles and addiction". Staley's songs were often considered "dark", with themes such as drug abuse, depression, and suicide, while Cantrell's lyrics often dealt with personal relationships.
Alice in Chains has sold over 14 million records in the United States, and over 20 million records worldwide, released two number-one albums, had 23 top 40 singles, and has received nine Grammy nominations. The band was ranked number 34 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. Alice in Chains was named 15th greatest live band by Hit Parader, with vocalist Layne Staley placing as 27th greatest heavy metal vocalist of all time. The band's second album, Dirt, was named 5th best album in the last two decades by Close-Up magazine. In August 2009, Alice in Chains won the Kerrang! Icon Award. In November 2011, Jar of Flies was ranked number four on Guitar World magazine's top ten list of guitar albums of 1994. It was also featured in Guitar World magazine's "Superunknown: 50 Iconic Albums That Defined 1994" list, and in May 2014, the EP was placed at number five on Loudwire's "10 Best Hard Rock Albums of 1994" list.
Alice in Chains has also had a significant influence on modern heavy metal. Their songs were covered by various metal bands such as Opeth, Dream Theater, Secrets of the Moon, Suicide Silence, and Grave. Pantera and Damageplan guitarist Dimebag Darrell had expressed his admiration for Jerry Cantrell's guitar work in an interview for Guitar International saying that "the layering and the honest feel that Jerry Cantrell gets on [Alice in Chains' Dirt] record is worth a lot more than someone who plays five million notes". Anders Fridén of Swedish melodic death metal band In Flames cited Layne Staley as an inspiration for his vocals on the band's later albums. In addition to fellow musicians, the band has also received praise from critics, with Steve Huey of AllMusic calling them "one of the best metal bands of the '90s" upon reviewing the 1999 compilation Nothing Safe.
- Studio albums
- Facelift (1990)
- Dirt (1992)
- Alice in Chains (1995)
- Black Gives Way to Blue (2009)
- The Devil Put Dinosaurs Here (2013)
- Rainier Fog (2018)
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 ALICE IN CHAINS Interviewed By VOICE OF AMERICA. Blabbermouth.net (May 28, 2010). Archived from the original on May 30, 2010. Retrieved on 2010-06-15.
- ↑ Recording Industry Association of America. RIAA. Retrieved on 2011-07-14.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Alice in Chains Is Working On New Music, Says HEART's Ann Wilson. Blabbermouth.net (July 20, 2011). Retrieved on 2011-07-20.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Alice in Chains To Re-Team With Producer Nick Raskulinecz For New Album. Blabbermouth (6 June 2017). Retrieved on 25 July 2017.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 de Sola, David (April 5, 2012). How Alice in Chains Found the Most Memorable Voice in Grunge. The Atlantic. Retrieved on 2012-04-16.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Prato, Greg (2009). pp. 211-212.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Layne Staley Interview Alice in Chains 1996 part 1 of 2. Retrieved on 14 July 2017.
- ↑ Alice in Chains: The Untold Story by David de Sola. Retrieved on 14 July 2017.
- ↑ Intimate interview with Alice in Chains. Retrieved on 6 August 2017.
- ↑ 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 Interview Alice In Chains - Jerry Cantrell and Sean Kinney about Layne Staley. YouTube (12 January 2010). Retrieved on 14 July 2017.
- ↑ Diamond Lie Press Kit. Retrieved on 14 July 2017.
- ↑ Template:YouTube.
- ↑ Discography – Dirt. Aliceinchains.com. Archived from the original on July 3, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-02-09.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Alice in Chains – Awards : Allmusic (Billboard Albums). AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved on 2013-05-29.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 Gill, Chris (September 1999). Dirt. Guitar World. Archived from the original on November 30, 2011. Retrieved on 2012-09-26.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 Alice in Chains - Awards: Allmusic (Billboard Singles). Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved on 2013-05-29.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Huey, Steve. Facelift. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 Glickman, Simon. Enotes – Alice in Chains. Enotes.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-28.
- ↑ Alice in Chains Guitarist Discusses 1990 Clash of the Titans tour, Touring With Ozzy. Blabbermouth.net (October 7, 2007). Archived from the original on January 8, 2009. Retrieved on 2008-02-09.
- ↑ 34th Grammy Awards – 1992. Rockonthenet.com. Archived from the original on January 5, 2008. Retrieved on 2007-12-08.
- ↑ Singles – Soundtracks and music scores. Aliceinchains.com. Archived from the original on November 25, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-12-28.
- ↑ 1993 MTV Video Music Awards. Rockonthenet.com. Archived from the original on December 7, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-12-08.
- ↑ Huey, Steve. Dirt. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 24.2 Wiederhorn, Jon (April 6, 2004). Remembering Layne Staley: The Other Great Seattle Musician To Die On April 5. VH1. Retrieved on 2007-12-22.
- ↑ 20 Years Later: Looking Back At Alice In Chains’ 1993 European Tour And Mike Inez Replacing Mike Starr (January 22, 2013). Retrieved on August 6, 2017.
- ↑ Especial MTV+ Alice in Chains (2007). Retrieved on August 6, 2017.
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 Alice In Chains Bassist Mike Starr Dies At 44. Rolling Stone (March 9, 2011). Retrieved on August 6, 2017.
- ↑ (August 4, 2015) Alice in Chains: The Untold Story. Thomas Dunne Books, 191–194. ISBN 1250048079.
- ↑ 2006 band bio – Aliceinchains.com. Aliceinchains.com. Archived from the original on July 19, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-12-14.
- ↑ Last Action Hero – Soundtracks and music scores. Aliceinchains.com. Archived from the original on March 8, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-24.
- ↑ 20 years of Lollapalooza. Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved on 2012-11-19.
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 Andrews, Rob (August 1994). "A Step Beyond Layne's World". Hit Parader.
- ↑ Jar of Flies – Discography. Aliceinchains.com. Archived from the original on December 8, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-12-28.
- ↑ Evans, Paul. Jar of Flies. Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2012-03-04.
- ↑ Huey, Steve. Jar of Flies. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
- ↑ American album certifications – Alice in Chains – Jar of Flies. Recording Industry Association of America.
- ↑ Ask Billboard: Alice In Chains, Anthony Hamilton, Jay-Z. Billboard (October 10, 2008).
- ↑ Wiederhorn, Jon (February 8, 1996). To Hell and Back. Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2012-03-04.
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 39.2 Rothman, Robin (22 April 2002). Layne Staley Found Dead. Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2012-03-04.
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 Meldrum Working With Producer Toby Wright. Blabbermouth.net (April 26, 2006). Archived from the original on January 23, 2008. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
- ↑ Alice in Chains timeline. Sonymusic.com. Archived from the original on February 22, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
- ↑ Wiederhorn, Jon (November 30, 1995). Alice in Chains: Alice in Chains review. Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
- ↑ Clerks – Soundtracks and movie scores. Aliceinchains.com. Archived from the original on November 16, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-12-28.
- ↑ Fischer, Blair R (September 4, 1998). Malice in Chains?. Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2012-04-08.
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 45.2 Unplugged – Alice in Chains. MTV (April 15, 1996). Archived from the original on February 17, 2007.
- ↑ Alice in Chains Concert Chronology: MTV Unplugged Session. John Bacus. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
- ↑ Alice in Chains – Sold Out. Hampton Beach Casino Ballroom. Archived from the original on November 30, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-25.
- ↑ Layne Staley Died From Mix Of Heroin, Cocaine, Report Says. MTV (7 May 2002). Retrieved on 6 August 2017.
- ↑ 49.0 49.1 Hay, Travis (February 21, 2005). Alice in Chains owns stage in tsunami-relief show full of surprises. Seattlepi.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-25.
- ↑ 50.0 50.1 Metallica man joins Alice in Chains. Rolling Stone (June 9, 2006). Archived from the original on November 20, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-11-25.
- ↑ The Essential Alice in Chains. Aliceinchains.com. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-12-28.
- ↑ Alice in Chains To Enter Studio In October. Blabbermouth.net (September 5, 2008). Archived from the original on September 8, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-09-05.
- ↑ Alice in Chains Working With Rush/Foo Fighters Producer. Blabbermouth.net (October 23, 2008). Archived from the original on May 25, 2009. Retrieved on 2008-10-23.
- ↑ Alice in Chains (May 30, 2013). Retrieved on July 30, 2017.
- ↑ Alice In Chains Set To Release First Album In 14 Years. Ultimate-Guitar.com (April 9, 2009). Archived from the original on April 12, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-04-09.
- ↑ Alice In Chains Signs With Virgin/EMI. Blabbermouth.net (April 25, 2009). Archived from the original on April 27, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-04-25.
- ↑ Alice In Chains: 'A Looking In View' video available. idiomag (July 8, 2009). Retrieved on 2009-07-27.
- ↑ Alice In Chains: New Single, Video On The Way. Blabbermouth.net (June 26, 2009). Archived from the original on June 28, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-06-26.
- ↑ Moody, Nekesa Mumbi (August 11, 2009). Alice In Chains Scores Elton John for Tribute Track. Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved on August 11, 2009.
- ↑ Alice In Chains To Release 'Your Decision' Single. Blabbermouth.net (October 12, 2009). Archived from the original on October 15, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-10-16.
- ↑ Future Releases on Alternative Radio Stations, Independent Artist Song Releases |. Allaccess.com. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved on 2011-07-14.
- ↑ Radio Industry News, Music Industry Updates, Arbitron Ratings, Music News and more!. FMQB. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved on 2011-07-14.
- ↑ Caulfield, Keith and Herrera, Monica (2009-10-07). "Barbra Streisand Surprises with Ninth No. 1 on Billboard 200". Billboard.com.
- ↑ Gold and Platinum Database Search. Retrieved on 5 August 2017.
- ↑ Alice In Chains Strikes Gold With 'Black Gives Way To Blue' (25 May 2010). Retrieved on 5 August 2017.
- ↑ Alice in Chains - Chart History. Retrieved on August 5, 2017.
- ↑ Alice in Chains - Chart History - Alternative Songs. Retrieved on August 5, 2017.
- ↑ Alice in Chains - Chart History - Hot Rock Songs. Retrieved on August 5, 2017.
- ↑ Alice in Chains - Chart History - Hot 100. Retrieved on August 5, 2017.
- ↑ Quinn, Ben (March 9, 2011). Mike Starr, legendary Alice in Chains bass player, found dead. The Guardian.
- ↑ Goodman, Dean (March 8, 2011). Former Alice in Chains rocker Mike Starr dies. Reuters.
- ↑ Metcalf, Jr. Dan. "Former 'Alice in Chains,' 'Celebrity Rehab' star dies in Salt Lake City" ABC News, March 8, 2011
- ↑ Allison, Melissa (March 20, 2011). Memorial held for Alice in Chains bassist Mike Starr. Seattletimes.nwsource.com. Retrieved on 2011-08-17.
- ↑ Wilkle, Jim (March 31, 2011). ESPN Music's 2011 bass-ball preview Mike Inez. Sports.espn.go.com. Retrieved on 2011-08-17.
- ↑ Alice In Chains To Begin Work On New Album. Metalhammer.co.uk (March 21, 2011). Retrieved on 2011-08-17.
- ↑ Guitarist Confirms Completion Of New ALICE IN CHAINS Album. Blabbermouth.Net. Retrieved on 2012-12-06.
- ↑ ALICE IN CHAINS: New Song 'Hollow' To Make Its Online Debut In Two Weeks. Blabbermouth.net. Retrieved on 7 December 2012.
- ↑ Alice in Chains Unleash New Single 'Hollow'. Loudwire.com (2012-12-18). Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
- ↑ Alice In Chains Working On “Hollow” Music Video, ThePRP.com, December 21, 2012.
- ↑ Alice in Chains. Facebook. Retrieved on 2013-02-21.
- ↑ Alice in Chains: New Album Title Revealed. Blabbermouth.net (2013-02-14). Retrieved on 2013-02-14.
- ↑ Alice in Chains – Chart history: Billboard 200. Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Archived from [[[:Template:BillboardURLbyName]] the original] on September 23, 2010. Retrieved on 28 August 2013.
- ↑ Alice in Chains Taps Director ROBOSHOBO For 'Phantom Limb' Video. lansingstatejournal.com (2014-05-19). Retrieved on 2014-05-20.
- ↑ Mainstream Rock Songs - The Week of March 30, 2013. Retrieved on August 1, 2017.
- ↑ Trust, Gary (June 13, 2013). Chart Moves: Cassadee Pope Debuts On Hot 100, Hot Country Songs; Alicia Keys Reaches Adult R&B Milestone; The Lone Bellow Adds Airplay. Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved on August 1, 2017.
- ↑ Mainstream Rock Songs - The Week of November 23, 2013. Billboard. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved on August 1, 2017.
- ↑ Alice in Chains - Chart History. Retrieved on August 1, 2017.
- ↑ Alice in Chains Is Working On Follow-Up To 'The Devil Put Dinosaurs Here', blabbermouth.net, January 24, 2017.
- ↑ Tim Karan, With Jar Of Flies, Alice In Chains unleashed an accidental masterpiece, A.V. Club, May 6, 2014.
- ↑ Go Ask Alice. Guitar World (January 1996). Archived from the original on July 29, 2013. Retrieved on 2012-10-04. See also: 1a, 1b, 2.
- ↑ Murray, Tom (2013-07-05). Alice in Chains stroll down memory lane for enthusiastic Rexall fans. Edmonton Journal. Retrieved on 2013-07-05.
- ↑ 92.0 92.1 92.2 92.3 92.4 92.5 92.6 92.7 Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. Alice in Chains - Music Biography, Credits and Discography. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved on 2012-09-22.
- ↑ Lynch, Bill. Alice unboud: After a long absence, Alice In Chains is back. The Charleston Gazette. Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved on 2012-09-27.
- ↑ Crean, Patricia. 'Alice' will rattle some chains. Spokane Chronicle. Retrieved on 2012-09-27.
- ↑ Conway, James. How Haven't You Heard ... Alice In Chains – Dirt. Vulture Hound Magazine. Retrieved on 2012-11-16.
- ↑ Considine, J.D (October 23, 1992). Alice in Chains breaks free of a style. Retrieved on 2012-09-26.
- ↑ Author, Unknown. THE METAL'S GONE, BUT THE TUNES AND MOODS REMAIN. Press-Telegram (Long Beach, CA). Retrieved on 2012-09-26.
- ↑ Christopher, Michael (September 23, 2003). Alice in Chains: Dirt. PopMatters. Retrieved on 2012-09-28.
- ↑ MacLennan, Michael. Music previews: Alice in Chains, Tegan and Sara and Will Young. STV. Retrieved on 2013-05-11.
- ↑ Coffey, Russ. CD: Alice in Chains - The Devil put Dinosaurs Here. The Arts Desk. Retrieved on 2013-05-27.
- ↑ Familton, Chris. ALICE IN CHAINS The Devil Put Dinosaurs Here. The Music.com.au. Retrieved on 2013-05-24.
- ↑ Martin Popoff (2013-05-30). ALICE IN CHAINS – "It's Not Like We're Trying To Recapture Dirt ... We Already Made That Fucking Record!". Brave Words & Bloody Knuckles. Retrieved on 2013-06-12.
- ↑ Schroer, Brendan. Review: Alice in Chains - Alice in Chains. Sputnikmusic. Retrieved on 2014-03-16.
- ↑ Gilbertson, Jon M.. DuVall, Cantrell keep Alice in Chains' drone-rock alive. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved on 2013-05-17.
- ↑ Grierson, Tim. Alice in Chains Biography and Profile. About.com. Retrieved on 2012-09-26.
- ↑ Alice in Chains: In the Studio - Jake Brown. Google Books.au. Retrieved on 2012-11-19.
- ↑ http://www.thenationalstudent.com/Music/2013-10-07/Interview_Alice_In_Chains.html
- ↑ Interview: Jerry Cantrell Discusses Alice in Chain's 2009 Comeback, 'Black Gives Way to Blue'. Guitar World. Retrieved on 2013-04-28.
- ↑ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. Degradation Trip. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved on 2012-03-30.
- ↑ Burrows, Alyssa (May 17, 2002). Alice in Chains singer Layne Staley dies on April 5, 2002.. Historylink.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-08.
- ↑ VH1: 100 Greatest Hard Rock Artists. Rockonthenet.com (2000). Archived from the original on January 8, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-01-08.
- ↑ "Hard Rock's All-Time Top 100 Live Bands". Hit Parader. February 2008.
- ↑ "Heavy Metal's All-Time Top 100 Vocalists". Hit Parader. November 2006.
- ↑ Metallica, Pantera: Top Albums Of Last 17 Years. Ultimate-Guitar.com (April 30, 2008).
- ↑ "News – The 2009 Kerrang! Awards winners" Template:Webarchive. Kerrang!. August 3, 2009.
- ↑ Grassi, Tony. Photo Gallery: The Top 10 Guitar Albums of 1994. GuitarWorld.com. Retrieved on 27 July 2017.
- ↑ Superunknown: 50 Iconic Albums That Defined 1994. GuitarWorld.com (14 July 2014). Retrieved on 27 July 2017.
- ↑ 10 Best Hard Rock Albums of 1994. Loudwire (20 May 2014). Retrieved on 27 July 2017.
- ↑ OPETH Covers ALICE IN CHAINS, ROBIN TROWER During New Album Sessions. Archived from the original on October 16, 2009.
- ↑ Dream Theater - "Would" Alice in chains Cover. YouTube (September 5, 2006). Retrieved on 2011-07-14.
- ↑ SECRETS OF THE MOON Post Cover Of ALICE IN CHAINS' "Them Bones" « The NewReview. Thenewreview.net (2010-09-19). Archived from the original on November 20, 2012. Retrieved on 2012-11-19.
- ↑ Suicide Silence Cover Alice In Chains.
- ↑ GRAVE Cover ALICE IN CHAINS' 'Them Bones'. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012.
- ↑ Dimebag Darrell Interview : Guitar Interviews. Guitarinternational.com. Archived from the original on January 11, 2011. Retrieved on 2011-07-14.
- ↑ IN FLAMES Frontman: When I Was A Teenage Headbanger .... Archived from the original on January 10, 2012.
- ↑ Huey, Steve. Nothing Safe - Alice in Chains. Allmusic. Rovi corporation. Retrieved on 2011-08-17.
- ↑ 10 Heaviest Grunge Bands. Metal Injection. Retrieved on 2017-06-16.
- ↑ Ozzy Osbourne's 10 Favorite Metal Albums. Rolling Stone (26 June 2017). Retrieved on 27 June 2017.